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Bitcoin is a decentralized digital currency, without a central bank or single administrator, that can be sent from user to user on the peer-to-peer bitcoin network without the need for intermediaries. It operates on a technology called blockchain.

Bitcoin, often denoted as BTC, is the pioneering cryptocurrency that was invented in 2008 by an anonymous person or group of people using the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto. The concept was introduced in a whitepaper titled "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System," and the network went live in 2009.

  1. Decentralization: Unlike traditional currencies issued by governments and centralized institutions, Bitcoin operates on a decentralized network of computers. This means that no single entity, government, or organization controls the Bitcoin network.
  2. Blockchain: All Bitcoin transactions are recorded on a distributed ledger called the blockchain. The blockchain is a series of blocks (sets of transactions) that are chained together and secured using cryptographic principles. Every time a block is completed, a new one is generated, and they are connected in a linear, chronological order.
  3. Mining: New bitcoins are introduced into circulation through a process called mining. Miners use powerful computers to solve complex mathematical problems, and the first one to solve the problem gets to add the next block to the blockchain and is rewarded with newly minted bitcoins.
  4. Finite Supply: Bitcoin has a maximum supply limit of 21 million coins, making it a deflationary asset by design. This scarcity is in stark contrast to fiat currencies, which central banks can print in unlimited quantities.
  5. Public and Private Keys: Bitcoin ownership and transactions are secured by cryptographic keys. A public key, which is like an address, is what people use to send you bitcoins. A private key, kept secret, is used to sign transactions and spend bitcoins stored at the associated public address.
  6. Global and Digital: Bitcoin can be sent or received anywhere in the world, and transactions can be finalized faster than many traditional banking systems. It exists purely in digital form, meaning there are no physical coins or bills.
  7. Pseudonymity: While all Bitcoin transactions are transparent and can be viewed by anyone, the identities of the people involved in those transactions are encrypted and not directly tied to their real-world identity.

Bitcoin's decentralized and borderless nature has made it a popular choice for various applications, including a store of value, a medium of exchange, and, for some, a hedge against inflation and economic instability. However, its volatile price, regulatory challenges, and nascent technology also pose risks and challenges for users and investors.


How does Bitcoin differ from traditional currencies?

Bitcoin differs from traditional currencies (often referred to as fiat currencies) in several ways:

  1. Decentralization: Bitcoin is not controlled or issued by any central authority, government, or institution. Instead, it operates on a decentralized network of computers.
  2. Supply Control: Bitcoin has a predetermined supply, capped at 21 million coins, ensuring scarcity. In contrast, central banks can print fiat currencies in unlimited quantities, potentially leading to inflation.
  3. Anonymity and Transparency: Bitcoin transactions are pseudonymous. While transaction details are publicly available on the blockchain, the identities of the involved parties are not directly tied to their real-world identities. Traditional banking transactions, on the other hand, are often tied to identifiable individuals or entities.
  4. Physical Existence: Bitcoin is purely digital, whereas traditional currencies exist in both physical (coins, notes) and digital forms.
  5. Global Utility: Bitcoin can be sent or received anywhere in the world without the need for currency conversion or traditional banking channels, potentially offering faster and cheaper global transactions.
  6. Security: Bitcoin transactions are secured by cryptographic principles, making them difficult to alter once confirmed. In contrast, traditional banking systems, while secure, may be susceptible to fraud, errors, or central points of failure.

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